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Research and Instruction: Chicago (Turabian)

how to cite

How to Cite: Chicago (Turabian)


Chicago (often also called Turabian) style is generally used by subject areas in the humanities and social sciences. It features footnotes or endnotes and an alphabetized list of references at the end called the Bibliography. Entries for the list of works cited must be alphabetical and double-spaced, with the indent of the subsequent line one-half inch from the left margin. The most recent style guide for Chicago (Turabian) citation can be found at the Reference Desk on the 2nd floor of the library.

Please consult your professor for the citation style they prefer. Always follow any specific guidelines given by your professor, even if they differ from what is explained here.

How to Cite Sources in Turabian

Chicago (Turabian) style citation utilizes either footnotes or endnotes and sometimes a bibliography. Footnotes are placed at the bottom of every page of the document while endnotes are placed at the very end of the document. A bibliography, when used, comes at the end of the document as well. Citations listed on the bibliography should be done in alphabetical order.

Footnotes and endnotes are numbered sequentially and correspond to a superscript number somewhere in the text. The footnote generally is placed at the bottom of the page where the corresponding number lives. If a bibliography is not used, the full citation should be used in the footnote/endnote the first time it is used. For all subsequent citations a shortened version of the citation is acceptable. If a bibliography is used, the shortened citation should be used throughout the footnotes or endnotes.

Examples:

In the text:

"This," wrote George Templeton Strong, "is what our tailors can do."¹

Corresponding footnote or endnote (full citation):

1. George Templeton Strong, Shortening Sleeves: Inside the Lives of Tailors, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008), 138.

Corresponding footnote or endnote (shortened citation):

1. Strong, Shortening Sleeves, 138.

Bibliography Entry

Strong, George Templeton. Shortening Sleeves: Inside the Lives of Tailors. Chicago: University of Chicago Press,

2008.

 

Format for footnote or endnote:

   1. Firstname Lastname, Title of Book (Place of  publication: Publisher, Year of publication), page number.

Format for bibliographical entry:

Lastname, Firstname. Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication.

Examples:

One author (footnote or endnote):

1. Christopher Morris, The Big Muddy (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2012), 108.  

One author (bibliographic entry):

Morris, Christopher. The Big Muddy. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2012.

Two or three authors or editors (footnote or endnote):

1. Sue-Ellen Jacobs, Wesley Thomas, and Sabine Lang, eds., Two-Spirit People: Native American Gender Identity, Sexuality, and Spirituality (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1997), 32.

Two or three authors or editors (bibliographic entry):

Jacobs, Sue-Ellen, Wesley Thomas, and Sabine Lang, eds. Two-Spirit People: Native American Gender Identity, Sexuality, and Spirituality. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1997.

Chapter (footnote or endnote):

1. Brendan Phibbs, "Herrlisheim: Diary of a Battle," in The Other Side of Time: A Combat Surgeon in World War II (Boston: Little, Brown, 1987): 117-63.

Chapter (bibliographic entry):

Phibbs, Brendan. "Herrlisheim: Diary of a Battle." In The Other Side of Time: A Combat Surgeon in World War II, 117-63. Boston: Little, Brown, 1987.

eBooks (footnote or endnote):

1. Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice (New York: Penguin Classics, 2008), PDF e-book, chap. 23.

eBooks (bibliographic entry):

Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice. New York: Penguin Classics, 2008. PDF e-book.

Format for footnote or endnote:

1. Firstname Lastname, "Title of article," Title of Journal Volume number, Issue number (Year of publication): Page number, access date, DOI or URL.

Format for bibliographical entry:

Lastname, Firstname. "Title of article."  Title of Journal Volume number, Issue number (Year of publication): Page range of article.  Access date, DOI or URL.

Examples:

Electronic Journal Article (footnote or endnote):

1. Mark Rees, “From Grand Dérangement to Acadiana: History and Identity in the Landscape of South Louisiana,” International Journal of Historical Archaeology 12, no. 4 (2008): 349, accessed August 30, 2015, 10.1007/s10761-008-0063-9.

Electronic Journal Article (bibliographic entry):

Rees, Mark. "From Grand Dérangement to Acadiana: History and Identity in the Landscape of South Louisiana.” International Journal of Historical Archaeology 12, no. 4 (2008): 338-359. Accessed August 30, 2015.  10.1007/s10761-008-0063-9.

Print Journal Article (footnote or endnote):

1. J. M. Beattie, "The Pattern of Crime in England, 1660-1800," 54.

Print Journal Article (bibliographic entry):

Beattie, J. M. "The Pattern of Crime in England, 1660-1800." Past and Present, no. 62 (1974): 47-95.

Newspaper (foodnote or endnote):

1. Pat Borzi, "Retirement Discussion Begins Anew for Favre."

Newspaper (bibliographic entry):

Borzi, Pat. "Retirement Discussion Begins Anew for Favre." New York Times, January 25, 2010. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/26/sports/football/26vikings.html?emc=etal1.

Format for footnote or endnote:

1. Firstname Lastname, “Title of Web Page,” Publishing Organization or Name of Website, publication date and/or access date if available, URL.

Format for bibliographical entry:

Lastname, Firstname. “Title of Web Page.” Publishing Organization or Name of Website. Publication date and/or access date if available. URL.

Example:

Website (footnote or endnote):

1. Justin A. Nystrom, "African Americans in the Civil War," KnowLA Encyclopedia of Louisiana. Louisiana Endowment for the Humanities, January 11, 2011. http://www.knowla.org/entry/891/&view=summary&ref=category&refID=3.

Website (bibliographic entry):

Nystrom, Justin A. "African Americans in the Civil War." KnowLA Encyclopedia of Louisiana. Louisiana Endowment for the Humanities. January 11, 2011. http://www.knowla.org/entry/891/&view=summary&ref=category&refID=3.

Chicago (Turabian) citation style recommends using The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation published by the Harvard Law Review Association to cite government documents. Examples of this style may be found here:

Introduction to Basic Legal Citation from Cornell

Bluebook Guide from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Legal Research and Writing from SUNY Buffalo

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