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Research and Instruction

How to Cite

How to Cite: ASA

ASA style is generally used by sociology. It features parenthetical citations and an alphabetized list of references at the end on a page titled References. Entries for the Reference page must be alphabetical and double-spaced, with the indent of the subsequent line one-half inch from the left margin. The most recent style guide for ASA citation can be found in the Reference Stacks on the 2nd floor of the library.

Please consult your professor for the citation style they prefer. Always follow any specific guidelines given by your professor, even if they differ from what is explained here.

ASA Style Guides

Citations in the text include the last name of the author(s) and year of publication. Include page numbers when quoting directly from a work or referring to specific passages. Identify subsequent citations of the same source in the same way as the first. Examples follow:

If the author’s name is in the text, follow it with the publication year in parentheses: another study by Duncan (1959).

If the author’s name is not in the text, enclose the last name and publication year in parentheses:
...whenever it occurred (Gouldner 1963).

Pagination follows the year of publication after a colon, with no space between the colon and the page number:
...Kuhn (1970:71).
Note: This is the preferred ASA style. Older forms of text citations are not acceptable: (Kuhn 1970, p. 71).

Give both last names for joint authors:
... (Martin and Bailey 1988).

If a work has three authors, cite all three last names in the first citation in the text; thereafter, use et al. in the citation.
If a work has more than three authors, use et al. in the first citation and in all subsequent citations.

First citation for a work with three authors:
...had been lost (Carr, Smith, and Jones 1962).

Later: ...(Carr et al. 1962)

If a work cited was reprinted from a version published earlier, list the earliest publication date in brackets, followed by the publication date of the recent version used.
...Veblen ([1899] 1979) stated that...

Separate a series of references with semicolons. List the series in alphabetical or date order, but be consistent throughout the manuscript.
... (Green 1995; Mundi 1987; Smith and Wallop

General format: (Choose the format that best fits your book)

Lastname, Firstname. Year of publication. Title. City of Publication: Publisher Name.

Lastname, Firstname. Year of publication. Title. City of Publication: Publisher Name. Retrieved Date, (URL).

Format for chapter in a book:

Lastname, Firstname. Year of publication. "Chapter Title." Pp. #-# in Title of Book. City of Publication: Publisher.


Print Book

Bursik, Robert J., Jr. and Harold G. Grasmick. 1993. Neighborhoods and Crime: The Dimensions of Effective Community Control. New York: Lexington Books. 

Chapter in a Volume of a Book

Clausen, John. 1972. "The Life Course of Individuals." Pp. 457-514 in Aging and Society. Vol. 3, A Sociology of Stratification, edited by M.W. Riley, M. Johnson, and A. Foner. New York: Russell Sage.

Edited Book

Hagen, John and Ruth D. Peterson, eds. 1995. Crime and Inequality. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.‚Äč


Thomas, Jan E., ed. 2005. Incorporating the Woman Founders into Classical Theory Courses. Washington DC: American Sociological Association. Retrieved December 12, 2006 ( 

General format: (choose the one that fits best)

Lastname, Firstname. Year. "Title of Article." Title of Journal. Volume (Issue):page numbers of article.

Lastname, Firstname. Year. "Title of Article." Title of Journal. Volume (Issue):page numbers of article. doi

LastnameFirstname. Year. "Title of Article." Title of Newspaper/Magazine. Month Day, pp. page numbers of article.

Lastname, Firstname. Year. "Title of Article." Title of Journal. Volume (Issue):page numbers of article. Retrieved Date (database name).

Take note:

There is no space between the colon and page numbers of an article.

In the case of a newspaper or magazine, the volume and issue information is replaced with the month and day. The year of publication is still placed immediately after the author, regardless of the type of periodical.


Print Journal Article

Aseltine, Robert H., Jr. and Ronald C. Kessler. 1993. "Marital Disruption and Depression in a Community Sample." Journal of Health and Social Behavior 34 (3):237-51.

Print Magazine or Newspaper Article

Ziff, Larzer. 1995. "The Other Lost Generation," Saturday Review, February 20, pp. 15-18.

Electronic Journal Article with DOI

Phillips, Reginald M., and S. H. Bonsteel, 2010. "The Faculty and Information Specialist Partnership Stimulating Student Interest and Experiential Learning." Nurse Educator, 35(3), 136-138. doi:10.1097/NNE.0b013e3181d95090

Electronic Journal Article without DOI

Menon, Nivedita. 2009. "Sexuality, Caste, Governmentality: Contests Over 'Gender' in India" Feminist Review 91:94-112. Retrieved November 2, 2010 (

General form:

Author. Year. "Title of Article or Webpage." Place of Publication: Publisher. Retrieved Date (URL).


American Sociological Association 2006. “Status Committees.” Washington, DC: American Sociological Association. Retrieved December 12, 2006 (

other apa guides